Secularity, a correlate of the meritocratic project, was the instrument of a political construction of a Mitsein today in crisis. Secularity, as a principle of reasonable government of men, excluded neither violent solutions nor naturalist representations of the school trajectories. But School is today confronted with the “ pluralist time ”, with an increasing request for cultural and religious plurality. And this democratic School, under the apparent social and political neutrality which sign the secularist ideology, reverses the relation with the feeling of social injustice : the more the School seems open to the greatest number, the more school failure is perceived as the singular productions of individuals, whence this recurring feeling of individual and even family and social dishonor. This academic case is to be seized through the prism of the refusal of politics by the school institution. The school question, according to us, is today nourished by the sexual and ethnic and social inequalities faced by the institution itself.
School, both the symbolical organisation of the social body and the setting up/building up of the individual, operates on the relations between power and desire. But this way of looking at the structuring of people’s craving for knowledge must be combined with an analysis of School and of the relationships to the Other that are generated by the Academic Institution. Then this process will make it possible to assess the understanding of the Discontents of the French School Institution as the actor/promoter of a monistic republican Citizenship. In the French social system within which school plays the part of leaven, the Other must turn into the Same. Through this, we can understand how tense relationships at school are.
Adolescence, 2008, T. 26, n°3, pp. 655-672